When people (artists and designers) refer to colour, they use several attributes of colour, terms that are used to define certain characteristics. These attributes can be credited to Albert Munsell (1858-1918) who first used them in his book “A Color Notation,” published in 1905 which is still in print today.
In 1917, Munsell founded the Munsell Color Company. His colour-order system is known as CIE which is an abbreviation of International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage) located in Vienna, Austria. This system of colour is the same system that is used in most graphic applications and colour monitors.
These attributes are listed here.
Hue is the name of the colour family to which a colour belongs. A red-orange which would have more red than orange, would belong to the family of reds, and so its hue would be considered red.
A word about colour gamuts: Gamuts refer to any device or software that can generate colour. A gamut is the range of colours that they see or produce. Your eyes see in RGB as do most devices, such as camcorders, video, television and your computer monitor. People who work in print, work in the CMYK gamut (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black), which is named for each of the colour plates that are used in printing. The CMYK colour gamut is contained within the RGB gamut. This means that all CMYK colours can be made in the RGB gamut, but not all RGB colours can be made in the CMYK gamut. This is also why your computer monitor can display CMYK colours without the aide of software or hardware. For people who work in colour, it’s important to realize that some of the more brilliant and intense colours available in RGB, cannot be created in things like paint or print. People who work on the web, on the other hand, work in RGB and have the full RGB colour gamut at their disposal. Anyone who has converted colours (or re-assigned colour profiles), can attest to the fact that the first thing that changes is the intensity and brilliance of RGB colours to CMYK. Those colours are converted to their closest match within the CMYK gamut.
A value of a colour is how dark or light a colour is. The value of any colour can be altered by adding white, creating a tint (which raises the value), or black, which creates a shade (which lowers the value).
Chroma refers to a colour’s purity. The stronger or brighter a colour is, the higher its chroma. The weaker or more mixed a colour is, the lower is it’s chroma. You can alter the chroma of a colour by adding white, grey, another colour or black. Chroma is also called saturation.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COLOUR
There are also 7 characteristics of colour that can affect any colour composition. These are listed below:
ADVANCE OR RECEDE
Colour has the ability to advance toward a viewer or appear to recede away. The rule of thumb has been that warm colours advance and cool colours recede. Think of it this way… warm colours as in those in sunlight and the blues in your background that create depth.
APPEAR WARM OR COOL
Colour temperature is strongly linked to colour depth. The same rules apply here. Warm colours appear to have a radiant heat and cool colours appear to generate a coolness.
Here’s the controversy regarding warm and cool colours: Many people can’t make up their minds which colours should be considered warm or cool. This is an argument that’s been raging for centuries. Some people quite simply, split the colour wheel in half into warm and cool. Others apply a general rule of any colour that contains red, is considered warm. Personally, I don’t believe any of this.
Green has the ability to be warm (lime) and cool (aquamarine). And you know what? So does magenta. The above colour harmony was created using the middle magenta hue as a base. The intent was to create a colour harmony that evoked a cold feeling, which it does. My point is that both magenta and green straddle the warm-cool boundary. They are the only ones that have that ability. This is why I see them as intermediate colours that can blend into warm or cool.
So really, the split between warm and cool is more like this…
APPEAR HEAVY OR LIGHT
Rich, saturated colours can appear heavy and heavily tinted colours can appear light.
Colour can create movement by changing tonal values.
Although this characteristic is strongly linked to geographical location and culture, there are very basic symbols that cross cultural borders such as blue representing sky or red representing fire etc.
Paint a small room in dark, dense colour and the room will appear smaller, paint it in a pastel colour and it will appear larger.
You can see it happening here. The red square on the left appears larger than the one on the right. It seems to be almost bulging. The black square on the right seems a little smaller and the red seems to somehow swell. The more radiant (saturated) a colour is, the more it will “swell” or appear larger.
ENHANCE SHAPE AND FORM
A red outline around any dark shape on a light background will soften its edge without blending it in. The red outline enhances (reduces) the shape’s contrasting edge. At the same time, colours that gradate to white (or a distance colour) on the edge of a shape will enhance the form by creating more depth.
Because life is colourful